Details

Lake Restoration Handbook


Lake Restoration Handbook

A New Zealand Perspective

von: David P. Hamilton, Kevin J. Collier, John M. Quinn, Clive Howard-Williams

202,29 €

Verlag: Springer
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 29.01.2019
ISBN/EAN: 9783319930435
Sprache: englisch

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Beschreibungen

Lakes across the globe require help.  The Lake Restoration Handbook: A New Zealand Perspective addresses this need through a series of chapters that draw on recent advances in modelling and monitoring tools, citizen science and First Peoples’ roles, catchment and lake-focused restoration techniques, and policy implementation. New Zealand lakes, like lakes across the globe, are subject to multiple pressures that have increased in severity and scale as land use has intensified, invasive species have spread and global climate change becomes manifest. This books builds on the popular Lake Managers Handbook (1987), which provided guidance on undertaking investigations into, and understanding lake ecosystems in New Zealand. The Lake Restoration Handbook: A New Zealand Perspective synthesises contemporary issues related to lake restoration and rehabilitation, integrated with social science and cultural viewpoints, and complemented by authoritative topic-area summaries by renowned scientists and practitioners from across the globe. The book examines the progress of lake restoration and the new and emerging tools available to managers for predicting and effecting change. The book will be a valuable resource for natural and social scientists, policy writers, lake managers, and anyone interested in the health of lake ecosystems.
Lake Restoration Handbook: A New Zealand Perspective

 

Editors

David Hamilton

Kevin Collier

Clive Howard-Williams

John Quinn                                                                                                      

 

 

Preface

Bill Vant – changes since the Lake Manager’s Handbook

 

 

A.    INTRODUCTION

 

 

Chapter 1: Context for restoration – David Hamilton, John Quinn, Clive Howard-Williams, Kevin Collier

Handling editor: Kevin Collier

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introductory comments

·         Defining what we mean by restoration, values

·         Managing for multiple uses (and lakes vs reservoirs)

·         Context: 1987 LMH and what has changed since?  Need for restoration.

·         Who carries out restoration? Who funds restoration?

·         What is the enabling environment?  Include models of governance (e.g. co-governance)

·         Brief introduction to the policy and regulatory environment (and end with something specific to NZ – MfE, RCs, DCs, NGOs)

International perspectives

·         Major issues globally (blooms, weeds, hydrology/storage and climate change, invasives, legacy nutrients)

·         Examples of international policies, e.g. WFD, TMDL

·         Approaches taken (align with issues), include catchment vs in-lake

·         Monitoring approaches to measure success     

·         Involving citizens

Introduction to chapters

·         Issues (eutrophication, invasives, multiple uses and objectives, policy and regulatory environment); use of models as decision support tools; dealing with the catchment (long-term essential approach); specific in-lake approaches.

Sum up

·         Set the scene for the concluding chapter of the book.

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         1.1 Brian Moss – The philosophy of restoration

·         Justin Brooks - An Australian perspective: policies and practices enabling lake restoration

 

B.<    MANAGEMENT AND MODELLING

 

Chapter 2: Modelling for catchment management – Aroon Parshotam & Dale Robertson

Handling editor: David Hamilton

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

Review of catchment modelling in NZ

·         e.g. BNZ, CREAMS, GLEAMS

·         Recent big catchment modelling projects (e.g. Tauranga Harbour, South-Eastern Manukau Harbour)

Assumptions

·         Broad assumptions of all catchment models (eg. Semi-distributed, etc.)

·         GIS layers that are generally used (soils, landuse, slopes, climate)

What models can be used for

·         Identify hotspots, climate change, soil erodibility...)

·         Types of landuses and what we expect from the various landuses

·         Review of Tools (eg. CLUES and OVERSEER)

Stakeholder organisations and role

Modelling for management purposes

Limitation of models

·         groundwater, spatial variability, assumptions

Future Prospects

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Richard Alexander (TBC)

·         Other (TBC)

 

 

Chapter 3: In-lake modelling for restoration – David Hamilton, John Quinn, Chris McBride

Handling editor: Clive Howard-Williams

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

·         What do we mean by modelling? 

·         Brief introduction to types of models available (deterministic, Bayesian, neural networks)

·         How do we use models for management purposes?

·         Focus mostly on deterministic models in this chapter

Types of models

·         Deterministic

·         Bayesian

·         Neural networks

Data requirements (primarily oriented to deterministic models) 

·         Climate data 

·         Hydrological data

·         In-lake data (inc. satellite data)

·         Opportunities enabled by high-frequency sensors

·         Techniques to generate missing data (models, interpolation etc.)

Case studies

·         Lake Benmore

·         Lake Rotorua (1-D long-term)

·         Lake Okaro (limiting nutrients)

·         Bayesian models for Waikato floodplain lakes

Future Prospects

·         Real-time simulation

·         National-scale modelling of lakes

·         Automated data inputs and validation (e.g. with satellite)

·         Global communities and open source tools (GLEON)

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Dennis Trolle - Mechanistic lake modelling approaches in Europe

·         Barbara Robson - Use of models as decision support tools for lake management

 

 

C.     WATER QUALITY RESTORATION

 

 

Chapter 4: Catchment restoration – Richard McDowall, Murray Close, Chris Tanner –

Handling editor: David Hamilton

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Land management (inputs) and outputs at the land-water interface

Overland and sub-surface flow losses

In-stream and wetland processes

Groundwater flow paths and attenuation

Future Prospects (including some words around cost and optimisation: e.g. CSAs)

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         4.1 Jason Julian & deBruers – Assessing land cover changes with high spatio-temporal resolution to assist with catchment restoration

·         Mark Tomer - Reducing agricultural inputs of nutrients and sediments to freshwater systems

 

 

Chapter 5: Destratification and mixing – Max Gibbs

Handling editor: Clive Howard-Williams

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction – Stratification, Thermal Density

Destratification         

·         Mixing            Concepts– lake size and shape matters

·         Mechanisms – mechanical, aeration, selective draw, flushing proactive, multiple mixing engines

·         Timing            - Monitoring for start of mixing, consequences of getting it wrong

Case studies

·         Upper Huia dam (Selective draw)

·         Auckland water supply reservoirs (aeration timing)

·         Opua Reservoir with and with deep mixing

·         Virginia Lake (Surface mixing)

·         Lake Rotoehu trials

Future Prospects                               

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Geoff Schladow - Destratification design, implementation and practice

·         Other TBC

 

 

Chapter 6: Flocculent and sediment capping for phosphorus management – Chris W. Hickey and Max M. Gibbs

Handling editor: John Quinn

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

·         Conceptual basis for flocculation and sediment capping for P-management (incl definition of terms)

·         Overview of agents used for flocking (natural and synthetic)

·         Overview of agents for sediment capping (advantages and disadvantages?)

Chemical principals for floccing and P-binding

·         Flocculents

·         Basis for use of Fe, Al, La, calcite for capping – summary table for issues

·         pH effects on adsorption efficiency – summary plot for Al and La salts

·         Add to background for sediments

·         Formulation of products

·         Sustainability of process

Water chemistry influences on efficacy

·         incl need for buffering because of low alkalinity of NZ waters

·         Stoichiometry and dosing

Practical application issues

·         Determine level of treatment required

·         What product suits?

·         Target area for application

·         Timing of application

·         Areal (surface), sub-surface, inflow dosing

·         Product formulation

Overseas applications

·         Cooke et al. (2005)

·         Recent capping (Danish lakes, Netherlands)

·         “Floc & lock” approach

·         Spears et al. capping review

New Zealand applications

·         Capping (Okareka, Okawa Bay, Okaro)

·         Floccing ( Lake Rotorua inflows)

Other issues

·         Non-target species effects (incl. toxicity considerations)

·         Lake processes (e.g., effects on nitrogen)

·         Regulatory

Future prospects

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Bryan Spears - Dealing with legacy phosphorus

·         Gang Pan - Novel, benign technologies for treating lake sediments

 

Chapter 7: Nutrient budgets in lake restoration – Piet Verburg, Marc Schallenberg, Sandy Elliott

Handling editor: John Quinn

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Sources and fates of nutrients in lakes

Fates of nutrients in lakes

Internal nutrient loading

Internal nutrient loading

Flipping lakes

Dissolved P accumulation in hypolimnia

Nutrient concentrations in lake water

Nutrients contained in fish biomass

Nutrients contained in macrophytes

Proportion of nutrients contained in macrophytes and potential for removal by harvesting.

Future prospects

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Jack Jones - In-lake nutrient retention 

·         Dale Robertson (TBC)

 

 

D.    BIODIVERSITY RESTORATION 

 

 

Chapter 8: Control of invasive aquatic plants – Deb Hofstra, de Winton, Champion, Clayton

Handling editor: Clive Howard-Williams

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

Tools

·         Control of Weeds & Restoration (restoring functionality &/or indigenous values)

·         Monitoring/Surveillance (methods & indicators)

Case studies

·         Wanaka - Objectives: Eradication> Minimum biomass>Containment>Nuisance control

·         Lake Rotoroa (Hamilton) - selective target weed control; escort on Iris Lake Rotoroa

·         Te Waihora – de-vegetation; Habitat manipulation (wave barriers); seed bank propagation

·         Didymo (cf water net) – Entry to NZ, spread, prediction models, research, rivers & lakes, NI vs SI, limited P-habitat, lessons learnt.

·         Hornwort & other

·         Northland lakes – prioritisation, surveillance, incursion response and eradication progress.

·         Cages for native plants - exclude grass carp (Elands, Omapere Isoetes)

Future Propsects

·         New incursions, control tools, economic & social pressures etc

·         Expanding FW habitats & connections, recreational economic use

·         Rate of spread

·         Apathy – return of sleeping giants – e.g. w/hyacinth (seed banks!)

·         Globalisation = new species (submerged, floating & marginal); New pathways; sabotage

·         Detection – DNA not like fish!

·         Chemophobic pressure (EPA reassessment)

·         Role of education & research

·         Biocontrol – challenges, successes & failures

·         Integrated control & Future expansion of the toolbox?

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         John Madson (TBC)

·         Brian Sorell

·         8.1 Jo Caffery - Control of Lagarosiphon major in Lough Corrib, Ireland, and Biodiversity Restoration

 

  Chapter 9: Control of invasive aquatic animals – Ian Duggan & Kevin Collier

 

 Handling editor: David Hamilton

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Inventories and distributions

·         Zooplankton and other microinvertebrates

·         Macroinvertebrates

·         Fish and Amphibians

Food-web implications

·         Field Observations

·         Manipulative experiments - e.g., Karori

Review of control techniques

·         Specific methods for removal and control of fauna

Case studies

·         Lake Serpentine

·         Lake Ohinewai

Future Prospects

·         Species entrained in vectors, not yet known established (e.g., aquarium trade species)

·         Future technologies for controlling animals

·         Global warming

·         Future invasion risks

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         9.1 Hugh McIsaac –

·         9.2 Chris Wisniewski - Carp eradication in Lakes Crescent and Sorrell

·         9.3 R Claramont – Managing invasive fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes; “Darwin’s Dreampond” or Nightmare?

 

 

Chapter 10: Restoring native fish communities – David Rowe, J Boubee, D West, B Hicks -

Handling editor: Kevin Collier

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Manipulating connectivity

·         Overcoming barriers to migration

·         Creating barriers to restore natives through preventing recolonization by salmonids

Habitat improvement

·         Protection of smelt spawning habitat in Taupo

·         Improvement of water quality in Lake Rotoiti has improved trout habitat and is increasing smelt abundance

·         Removal of macrophytes in Lake Waingata increased dwarf inanga

Control of invasive species

·         Perch reduction increased common bullies in Taieri lakes (Gerry Closs)

·         Perch reduction in Karori Reservoir (Wgtn) and Lake Wainamu (Auck) will restore native fish

·         Trout removal increased recruitment of dwarf inanga in Lake Waikere

Stocking

·         Historic Maori stocking

·         Dwarf inanga stocked into Lake Ototoa

·         Elvers stocked into reservoirs and ponds by eel fishers

·         Smelt and bullies restocked into Parkinson lake after rotenone removal of all fish

Monitoring the success of fish restoration measures in lakes

·         Electric fishing boat use (Brendan Hicks)

·         Monitoring migrations in inlet/outlet streams

·         Acoustic methods

Future prospects

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         10.1 Martin Søndergaard - Experience from Danish lake restorations

·         Eric Jeppesen - Aquatic food webs

·         John Magnuson - Fisheries restoration – a North American perspective

 

 

E.     MONITORING AND INDICATORS

 

 

Chapter 11: Indicators of ecological integrity – Marc Schallenberg, Mary de Winton, Dave Kelly

Handling editor: John Quinn

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Ecological integrity (EI) in the context of indicators of freshwater quality and “health” (“hard” vs normative indicators)

Comparison of definitions of EI

A NZ definition of lake EI (i.e. values) and a framework for its implementation

Reference condition and other EI restoration endpoints

Key indicators of Lake EI

Suggested EI guidelines for deep lakes, shallow lakes and brackish lakes

Special considerations relevant to lake restoration

The place of EI in current lake management policy

Future prospects

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         11.1 Jonathan Abell – Techniques to derive reference conditions in lakes

·         11.2 Sandra Poikane – Assessing ecological conditions of lakes across Europe -

 

 

Chapter 12: Biodiversity Genomics: Monitoring Restoration Efforts with Environmental DNA – Ian Hogg, Jonathan Banks

Handling editor: Kevin Collier

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

·         Outline problem

·         Morphological identifications

·         Benefits to streamlining/simplifying process

Genetic characterisation of lake inhabitants

·         The process and the need to build an adequate library

·         Genetic markers – COI, 28S

·         What is meant by environmental DNA?

·         Examples of work in NZ

Community-level analyses

Assessing invertebrate communities using DNA analyses

·         Zoo case study

Assessing lake trophic status using DNA from rotifers

·         Trophic Level Index

Assessing the presence of fish using environmental DNA

·         Brown trout and in Karori

·         Koi carp work elsewhere

Future prospects

·         Changing technology

·         Emerging platforms

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         12.1 Chris Jerde – Environmental DNA applications in the Laurentian Great Lakes: From targeted species surveillance to biodiversity monitoring

·         Dianne Gleeson - Sensitivity of DNA based detection for aquatic restoration applications

 

 

Chapter 13: Remote monitoring techniques – Chris McBride, Mat Allan, David Hamilton

Handling editor: Clive Howard-Williams

 

Abstract (^east 5 keywords)

High frequency monitoring

·         Sensors (WQ & meteorology): Commercial, open source

·         Integrated systems: e.g. fixed buoys, profiler buoys

·         Telemetry: types of telemetry, web interfaces.

·         ‘Big data’: Processing techniques, open source software.

·         Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)

Remote sensing

·         Remote sensing theory

·         Atmospheric correction

·         Algorithms: inferring WQ from spectral images

·         Medium resolution satellite applications

·         High-resolution satellite applications

Future prospects

·         Low cost/open source hardware and software

·         Miniaturisation

·         Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

·         Wireless sensors and mesh networks

·         Data mining

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Paul Hanson - Engaging the science community in lake monitoring with sensors

·         13.2 Michio Kumagi - Remote Sensing Techniques for Lake Assessments – the Lake Biwa example

 

 

F.     SOCIAL, CULTURAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC CONTEXT

 

 

Chapter 14: Indigenous values and management – Erica Williams, Erina Watene-Rawiri, Ian Kusabs

Handling editor: John Quinn

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

·         Drivers for the recognition of indigenous values in NZ lake restoration and management                

·         Treaty Settlements,

·         NZ cultural landscape, rights and interests of Maori in relation to lakes

Maori values, uses and practises associated with lakes

·         Kaitiakitanga ·         Taniwha, kai species, recreation, rongoa, birds, waka, geothermal resources, spiritual, tapu/rituals, pepeha, islands, sense of place and identity, intergenerational interactions Examples of how lakes and lake fisheries aspects are covered in Treaty Settlements, legislation, implementation

·         Liberation of beneficial species to lakes.

·         “Lakes” importance in whanau/hap?/iwi/Maori economy

Pressures

·         Degradation and loss of Maori values associated with pressures on lakes

·         Loss of access/ecological connectivity/habitat, contamination/discharges, nutrients, wastewater

·         The view of some Maori that hydro lakes do not replace the original river

·         Contaminants – sediment, sewage and legacy issues?

·         Introduced pest species – aquatic weeds and fish etc.

·         Co-benefits? Examples of “new” (artificial) lakes / man-made

Maori aspirations for lake restoration & management

·         As expressed in Treaty evidence, Iwi Plans, statutory planning documents

·         Examples of Maori/Iwi-led and collaborative/statutory-led management

 

·         Maori-owned / Maori-co-managed lakes

Restoration

·         Restoration techniques for enhancement of Maori values associated with lakes

·         Applied examples – “M?ori in action”

Lessons learned

·         Key messages for international indigenous communities

·         Key challenges ahead

·         Towards a cultural index for lakes

Future prospects

 

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Vanessa Copa Torrez - (TBC)

·         14.2 Jinwon Seo – Protecting and restoring Indian fisheries

 

 

 

Chapter 15: Implementing lake restoration – Andy Bruere, Warwick Silvester, Andy Woolhouse

Handling editor: David Hamilton

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction: Developing a plan of action

Lake/catchment history - defining the problem

·         What do we know, Outlining the problem, Understanding lake and catchment history, What is the need for action?, Evidence from surrounding lakes, Community expectations, Legal requirements, Identify success and convert to targets (sustainable load), Identify sources of nutrient inputs

Community awareness, interest and buy-in

Implementation leadership and roles in restoration

·         Community and community groups role, Government/statutory agencies and their role, Specific pressure groups wrt Lake WQ, Catchment and Lake stakeholders

Options for development of the Plan for Action - What do we already know and understand and how do we fill the knowledge gaps?

·         Clarifying what we know and what we don’t know, Technical support, Identifying knowledge gaps, Identify and evaluating options, Add up expected gains from selected options, What is the cost/who bears?, Recognise nutrient reductions may have different values, Agree action plan with community and stakeholders

Implementing the Plan for Action - The Plan for Action must have clear Goals, Actions and Responsibilities

·         Goals, Actions and priorities, Responsibilities, Monitoring progress, Review of implementation, Review Plan for Action with community and stakeholders

Legislation and legal matters - How does the legislation affect restoration efforts?

·         The RMA, NPSFW, LGA

Future prospects

 

Proposed feature box contributors:

·         Suzie Kerr (TBC)

·         Ned Norton (TBC)

 

 

Chapter 16: Linking citizen science with community environmental restoration: empowering/engaging volunteers to measure lake ecosystem health – Monica Peters, David Hamilton, Chris Eames

Handling editor: Kevin Collier

 

Abstract (<200 words and be followed by at least 5 keywords)

Introduction

·         Brief summary of FW lakes and their decline in health

·         FW policy and management

·         Outline of key contrasts to US – reference to Feature Boxes

What is Citizen Science?

·         Summary of concept, activities, outcomes

·         Citsci directions in NZ

Community group engagement in lake and catchment restoration ·         Short para on study from where data in chapter are derived from

·         Characteristics of groups

·         Summary of key lake, margin and catchment activities

·         Development of toolkits and their use following MfE EPI program in mid-90s

·         Challenges around toolkit use

·         Opportunities around tech; groups’ interest in using more technology

·         Data quality

Framework for developing and supporting a community environmental monitoring program

Future prospects  

Proposed international feature box contributors:

·         Kathie Weathers - Lake Sunapee Protective Association

·         16.2 Mark Hoyer – Lakewatch program a successful long-term community monitoring program

 

 

G.    CONCLUSION

 

Chapter 17: Lake restoration - the future – Clive Howard-Williams, David Hamilton, John Quinn, Kevin Collier

 

Proposed feature box contributors:

·         Vera Power - The policy and regulatory context for restoration
?David Hamilton is Deputy Directory at the Australian Rivers Institute at Griffith University. He held the Bay of Plenty Chair in Lake Restoration at the University of Waikato, New Zealand for 15 years and led a major lake restoration programme designed to provide the underpinning research to address algal blooms and incursions of invasive fish.  This programme provided the impetus for the current book.  Hamilton is an associated editor on two international journals and has led several special issues of scientific journals. He has also held a position at the University of Western Australia where he developed and applied models of lake water quality. Kevin Collier is a freshwater ecologist at the University of Waikato who has worked across the science-management interface for over 30 years. He has previously co-edited books synthesising ecological knowledge of New Zealand freshwater invertebrates (2000) and the country's longest river, the Waikato River (2010). He is associate editor on two international journals. John Quinn is an aquatic ecologist who has been Chief Scientist for Freshwater and Estuaries at NIWA since 2015. Over the previous 20 years, he led cross-institute, interdisciplinary, research programmes on river, lake and estuary restoration, river ecosystems and land use interactions and managing forest harvest impacts on streams. He has been a guest editor of two special issues of scientific journals focused on the outputs of these programmes. Clive Howard-Williams is currently Chief Science Advisor (Natural Resources) at New Zealand's National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research. He has published widely on freshwater ecosystems from tropical to polar regions, and has led research programmes on wetland, lake and estuarine ecosystems. He has also been involved in freshwater consultancy work on freshwater restoration. Clive has been the guest editor of several books and journal special issues related to aquatic ecology.
Lakes across the globe require help.  The Lake Restoration Handbook: A New Zealand Perspective addresses this need through a series of chapters that draw on recent advances in modelling and monitoring tools, citizen science and First Peoples’ roles, catchment and lake-focused restoration techniques, and policy implementation. New Zealand lakes, like lakes across the globe, are subject to multiple pressures that have increased in severity and scale as land use has intensified, invasive species have spread and global climate change becomes manifest. This books builds on the popular Lake Managers Handbook (1987), which provided guidance on undertaking investigations into, and understanding lake ecosystems in New Zealand. The Lake Restoration Handbook: A New Zealand Perspective synthesises contemporary issues related to lake restoration and rehabilitation, integrated with social science and cultural viewpoints, and complemented by authoritative topic-area summaries by renowned scientists and practitioners from across the globe. The book examines the progress of lake restoration and the new and emerging tools available to managers for predicting and effecting change. The book will be a valuable resource for natural and social scientists, policy writers, lake managers, and anyone interested in the health of lake ecosystems.
Integrates leading technologies, models, indigenous knowledge, and citizen science on lake restoration Shows how these contemporary lake restoration tools may be applied practically for solutions to water quality problem Provides inter-disciplinary understanding across the natural and social sciences Addresses diffuse pollution, invasive species and climate change Synthesises information on lake restoration at the local (New Zealand) scale and provides an international context for this information With contributions from leading authorities across the globe
Integrates leading technologies, models, indigenous knowledge, and citizen science on lake restoration Shows how these contemporary lake restoration tools may be applied practically for solutions to water quality problem Provides inter-disciplinary understanding across the natural and social sciences Addresses diffuse pollution, invasive species and climate change Synthesises information on lake restoration at the local (New Zealand) scale and provides an international context for this information With contributions from leading authorities across the globe

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